2006 (N=44):

Figure 2. Mean power.

  • Only the chelate group had significant body weight gains (P<0.05) although both creatine groups gained weight; stack P=0.17.

  • Total body water and intracellular and extracellular water compartments: the chelate group had a trend for slightly higher body water compared to placebo but there were no within or between group differences (P>0.05).

  • No significant differences were noted in the one-minute hand grip test within or between groups.

  • Anaerobic power as determined by the Wingate test; no significant differences in serial tests over 12 days although the chelate group gains in mean power was 14.5% compared to stack at 1.6%; (Figure 2) only the chelate group showed better peak power (Table 1) in the post test although it was not significant.

Table 1.

2009 (N=36):

  • Body weight yielded no significant differences within or between groups (P>0.05).

  • Total body water and intracellular and extracellular water compartments: There were no significant differences between groups (P>0.05). There was a trend for increased intracellular water in the creatine-magnesium chelate subjects (P=0.08), with a larger variation in the post testing.

  • Hand grip strength: there were no significant differences in maximal hand grip pre-post or across groups (P>0.05). The hand grip fatigue test exhibited statistical significance for all groups (P<0.05), pre-post, for total work improvements.

  • Anaerobic power as determined by the Wingate test; there were no significant differences from the treatment on peak power, mean power, adjusted peak power for weight, or adjusted peak power for weight (P>0.05) in the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Both creatine treatments resulted in greater mean power, 2.4% for alkaline creatine and 12% for the chelate condition with peak power improvements of 2.1 % and 3.3%, respectively. (Figure 3 below)

  • Isokinetic strength and fatigue tests: there were no significant effects on isokinetic maximal isometric torque measured in Nm (P>0.05). All groups improved on concentric peak torque at 90 deg/s over the course of the study (P<0.05). There was no difference between groups (P>0.05) on total work performed during the 30 consecutive maximal repetitions. All groups improved on total work done during 30 maximal effort trials at 90 deg/s over the course of the study (P<0.05).

  • Delayed onset muscle soreness [DOMS]: The creatine groups did have significant main effects pre to post testing in delayed onset muscle soreness [DOMS] using a visual analog scale after a 5-minute eccentric bout of exercise (P<0.05). The effects were observed at 12, 24, and 36 hour intervals for the alkaline creatine subjects and at 12 hour intervals up to the 60 hour interval for the magnesium-creatine chelate group. There were no significant effects between groups.

Figure 3. Adjusted peak and mean power.