Only the chelate group had significant body weight gains (P<0.05) although both creatine groups gained weight; stack P=0.17.
Total body water and intracellular and extracellular water compartments: the chelate group had a trend for slightly higher body water compared to placebo but there were no within or between group differences (P>0.05).
No significant differences were noted in the one-minute hand grip test within or between groups.
Anaerobic power as determined by the Wingate test; no significant differences in serial tests over 12 days although the chelate group gains in mean power was 14.5% compared to stack at 1.6%; (Figure 2) only the chelate group showed better peak power (Table 1) in the post test although it was not significant.
Body weight yielded no significant differences within or between groups (P>0.05).
Total body water and intracellular and extracellular water compartments: There were no significant differences between groups (P>0.05). There was a trend for increased intracellular water in the creatine-magnesium chelate subjects (P=0.08), with a larger variation in the post testing.
Hand grip strength: there were no significant differences in maximal hand grip pre-post or across groups (P>0.05). The hand grip fatigue test exhibited statistical significance for all groups (P<0.05), pre-post, for total work improvements.
Anaerobic power as determined by the Wingate test; there were no significant differences from the treatment on peak power, mean power, adjusted peak power for weight, or adjusted peak power for weight (P>0.05) in the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Both creatine treatments resulted in greater mean power, 2.4% for alkaline creatine and 12% for the chelate condition with peak power improvements of 2.1 % and 3.3%, respectively. (Figure 3 below)
Isokinetic strength and fatigue tests: there were no significant effects on isokinetic maximal isometric torque measured in Nm (P>0.05). All groups improved on concentric peak torque at 90 deg/s over the course of the study (P<0.05). There was no difference between groups (P>0.05) on total work performed during the 30 consecutive maximal repetitions. All groups improved on total work done during 30 maximal effort trials at 90 deg/s over the course of the study (P<0.05).
Delayed onset muscle soreness [DOMS]: The creatine groups did have significant main effects pre to post testing in delayed onset muscle soreness [DOMS] using a visual analog scale after a 5-minute eccentric bout of exercise (P<0.05). The effects were observed at 12, 24, and 36 hour intervals for the alkaline creatine subjects and at 12 hour intervals up to the 60 hour interval for the magnesium-creatine chelate group. There were no significant effects between groups.