Research Threads

Figure 1. Peak power.

The 2001 and 2009 projects were most similar in design: three groups with prepost treatment testing. The salient group difference was in supplementation: stacking magnesium oxide and creatine in 2001 and utilizing alkaline creatine in 2009 compared to magnesium creatine chelate and placebo conditions. The period of supplementation also differed: 2 weeks in 2001 and 4 weeks in 2009.

Due to the statistically significant findings in some tests, notably body water and anaerobic power, in the 2001 study, these tests were repeated in the 2009 project. There were no significant differences between groups in these tests.

However, within groups, the magnesium creatine chelate subjects had significantly greater intracellular water [ICW] in 2001 with a trend towards increased ICW in 2009. Increased ICW may represent cell swelling indicative of protein synthesis as published in the 2003 article. The chelate condition was the only one which resulted in peak torque increases in the earlier study. In 2001, the stack condition did have significant increases in total body water, but the change in ICW was not significant; the placebo group exhibited no significant changes. There was essentially no ICW change in placebo and alkaline creatine conditions in the 2009 project. The 2009 results are presented below.

Anaerobic power was tested via the Wingate Anaerobic Test [WANT] in all three projects. Peak Power tends to be the most varied measure in this test application. In 2001, only the chelate group had significant improvements in Peak Power. In 2009, there were no significant changes although the chelate condition improved ~7% while the alkaline chelate and placebo groups were essentially unchanged. There were no significant differences in Mean Power, although in 2009 the chelate condition improved more than the alkaline condition. A caveat must be considered when interpreting percent changes without statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the 2006 study, although inspection of the means showed that there may be a slight improvement in Peak and Mean Power with the chelate condition. (Figure 1 & 2)

Figure 2. Mean power.

In isokinetic strength and fatigue testing, creatine regardless of form impacted strength and fatigue. The chelate group did perform more total work in the 2001 study but this finding was not replicated in the 2009 study.

In isokinetic strength and fatigue testing, creatine regardless of form impacted strength and fatigue. The chelate group did perform more total work in the 2001 study but this finding was not replicated in the 2009 study.

Hand grip testing showed no significant differences in the 2006. More total work was done by all groups as noted in the 2009 study, although the absolute maximal strength trials did not significantly change. This finding infers that there was less fatigue over the 3-minute course of repetitive contractions.