An exercise test to exhaustion [ETT] was performed only in the 2001 study. Only the chelate (Creatine Magnapower® group had a slight improvement in time, although it was not statistically significant. There was a trend towards reaching anaerobic threshold in both creatine groups, stacked and chelate conditions.

Delayed onset muscle soreness [DOMS] was assessed after a bout of eccentric exercise only in the 2009 study. There were no significant differences between groups. The alkaline creatine had significantly less DOMS post treatment at 12 hour intervals up to 36 hours and the creatine chelate condition elicited amelioration of DOMS at 12 hour intervals up to 60 hours; DOMS was measured for 72 hours post exercise.

Overall, creatine did have performance enhancing effects. The chelate condition in the studies had slightly greater improvements on some measures, especially noted in body and compartmental water which may suggest an enhanced protein synthesis. The Wingate test had mixed results but there is an indication that the chelate condition resulted in better anaerobic performance to some extent. The improvement in DOMS in both creatine conditions is worthy to note. The chelate condition had a slightly better influence. The chelate condition was contrasted to the same components delivered in a stack fashion or to an alkaline creatine compound.

Part of the difficulty in creatine research on physical performance is that there is no sensitive test for anaerobic power. However, there may be other markers, such as the body and compartmental water, DOMS, and possibly ETT testing that can be used as surrogates which may infer an enhanced physical performance. Another factor affecting creatine research is literature reporting that up to 30% of subjects may be non-responders. That supplementation may affect parameters measured without an intervening standardized training program is noteworthy.

Table 2.